回味语文(9)课堂的风姿

       踏进课堂,令我忘记尘世的喧嚣,进入陶醉的状态。三尺讲台,何尝不是一个偌大的世界!这世界清一色的年青人,男男女女,充满朝气和活力,每天置身其中,岂不乐哉?

快乐,源自家长的赐予和信任。但是,面对一双双期待的目光,我又感觉不轻松:凭什么享受这份难得的快乐,凭什么吸引他们的注意?凭什么产生课堂的高效?

我的课堂教学孜孜以求的是扎实、灵动。

扎实的积累之功。上课之初,我有两个“保留节目”:

一是站着集体朗诵一首诗或一句名言或精彩的描写片段,学生轮流抄在黑板上,记在笔记本上,最终能背诵、能运用。

二是向学生推荐一篇时文或一部名著,或介绍自己正在读的书和文章(我有阅读摘录本),包括我刚刚买的新书,激发学生课外阅读的兴趣。这种方式我坚持了多年。

介绍一位作家、一部作品或一种文体,我总喜欢将它放在中外文学史的大背景下来说明,讲一点带一串,以开阔学生的视野。

学生听课,总要做记录。我要求学生做课堂笔记,不只是刻板地抄录我的板书,而是要学会随时记下我讲述的有价值的内容,比如我引用的名言、与教材相关的补充资料,记下新收获或疑问等,不让课堂的“精华”流失,又方便复习、巩固。

课外阅读的积累,我抓的是摘录本。学生平时读书、读报、读杂志遇到好词、好句、好段或美文抄录下来,读后的感悟写下来,日积月累,就是一笔可观的“财富”。适当时候,交流互阅。提倡在写作时灵活运用摘录的内容,学生感到有成就感。

写作上的积累,我抓的是日记。我教过的学生无论是高一、高二还是毕业班,都写日记,我会收阅、批改、讲评,让它充分发挥积累素材、积累感情和积累思想的功能,效果没差过。

扎实的文本解读。阅读教学的着力点首先是文本的深入理解,而不是蜻蜓点水。在文本解读时常常给学生示范,哪些是教参的观点,哪些是我个人的理解,包括我对文本、教参的商榷,以打破唯师、唯书的僵化思维模式。我的课堂提问频率比较高,讨论热烈。有时采用问卷式让学生提出五花八门的疑问,然后筛选一些,在课上答疑或讲课时有意强化。我欣赏那些大胆质疑的学生,独立思考的学生。我印象特别深刻的是,首届学生(82级)陆兴华同学每学期课外只向我提几个问题,这几个问题是我不能立马能回答的,是要查阅一些资料才会做出比较满意的答复。我常常表扬她,意在倡导学会思考。

扎实的学法指导。除了课前预习、课中学习、课后复习巩固等常规环节的学法指导外,我还引导学生自建读写档案,比如每学期的《写作全记录表》,每篇习作须填写篇名、体裁、得分、优点、不足、改进措施等。有了这几项,就能逐步发现自己写作的强项和薄弱点。经过一段时间,会看到转变的进展情况。这份表学生管用,教师也管用,对照表的内容,可以快捷地分析某位同学的得与失。关于学生学习学法的指导和习惯的养成,我写了《培养习惯是洪氏教材入门教学的关键》(《语文之友》199524期)《学生自建档案的尝试》(《东台教育报》19934期)

课堂,需要山的“沉稳”,也离不了水的“灵动”。

灵动,是我一贯追求的教学境界。在一个班教一学期还罢,最多教一年,如果连续教好几个学期,咋办?真的有时让人产生“黔驴技穷”之感。灵动,是走出这一窘境的绿色通道。我教第一届就是连续三年,接着连续6年任教高三毕业班,最后一届(92级)从高一起教了三学期(因工作调动离开唐中),深感教法的丰富多样太重要了。要不然,经过一段时间,学生完全掌握了你的“老一套”,那就容易失去新鲜感、陌生感和趣味感,师生双方都会感到倦怠和烦腻。

巧用“道具”。数理化课堂往往有各种各样实验教具,令学生趣味盎然,语文课则不然。我则想方设法也带一点“道具”进课堂,这就是书籍。教某一篇课文,力求找到它所在的原著或这位作家的相关作品,如教鲁迅的杂文《拿来主义》,我将收藏的鲁迅的十几本杂文集一下子展示给同学看,产生很强的震撼力;教《三国演义》《红楼梦》等的节选,就把这些原著给学生看;教工具书的使用,将各类常用的工具书(包括《辞海》)重叠起来给学生看,让学生又惊又喜;教巴金的散文,将全套《随想录》带进课堂,让学生对巴金产生敬意。这些“道具”的频频亮相,令学生课外阅读产生浓厚的兴趣。除书籍外,还会根据课文内容和教学实际携带不同的实物。

“拐弯”导入。每一次上课都是开门见山,平铺直叙,很快就会让学生乏味。我是很讲究“开场白”的。教现代文可能从古代材料入手,教古文可能从外国材料入手。这种“拐弯”的技巧常常产生意外的效果,当然不能“弯弯绕”,占用太多时间就不足取。我时常从有趣的小故事或一个疑问导入,也有较强的吸引力。赠学生以名言是常事。比如1989年新年,我作简短致辞后赠语:“如果你跟得上时间的步伐,你就不会默默无闻。——瑞士名言”此语后来好多学生常常说起。

 “魔方”设计。教学设计,大可学一学“魔方”的魔力。走进文本的过程,虽然有一些模式,什么“三步法”“五步法”或其它,我喜欢随文定“步”。比如切入文本,正常从标题、开头顺“流”而下,但有时却从中间“开花”,偶尔“倒吃甘蔗”,从文末的写作时间开始或结尾句开始,别具一格,学生跟着你逛公园,不走回头路,不断产生“柳暗花明又一村”的感觉,效果就出来了。我曾经写过《阅读教学中的“倒教法”》(《教师报》1993117)总结了这一成功的尝试。

教学内容和进度的安排自然是按常规运作,但也有超常规的探索。比如我教《阿Q正传》的两章,就破例花了九个教时,让学生充分感受了一次名著阅读之旅,每人都通读了这部中篇小说,并了解了如何读整本书,写了多篇读书笔记。这次“跑野马”式的阅读活动,近似于后来“新课程”所推行的研究性学习。我看到不少同学的读后感对人物形象的分析非常全面、深刻,多少有一点理论味儿,大感意外。当年的这一尝试,虽然是“个人”行为,但学校没有对此加以“扼杀”,可见当时的教学环境还是宽松的,允许有一点教学探索。

写作教学的灵动度更大。指导写作当然与阅读联姻,我常常引入时文 ,或新诗,或微型小说,或杂文等等。所以,我的写作课常常以阅读欣赏为铺垫。同样,我的阅读欣赏课,也常常渗透写作指导,二者难分难舍。在写作指导中,也会讲究扎实和灵动的交融。比如一次指导书信写作,对高中生而言或许是“小菜一碟”,其实写信也大有学问。为了备好这节课,我阅读了一本专门介绍书信写作的书,于是,我的指导就出现了学生意想不到的场景:首先介绍一些名家的书信,如鲁迅的“两地书”、《傅雷家书》等,然后介绍书信的历史,再介绍书信的一些趣事,学生的兴趣完全被调动起来了,然后出示往届学生给我的书信、明信片和贺卡等实物资料,最后才亮出训练题,让同学们给名人写信,大家一下子又“懵”了。我马上提供了若干地址,学生“得救”了。此次活动真的收到了一批来自作家、学者、明星、编辑等的回信,同学们互相交流,兴奋之情,溢于言表。像这样经过精心策划的写作课反响往往很理想。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

学生喜欢我的写作课或许超过阅读课。我的写作指导常常伴随着示范,我将发表的文章贴于教室墙壁,让他们知道老师也在练笔。有时就在黑板上与学生同时“笔耕”,写“下水文”,那效果更是出奇的好,哪怕有的地方写得不妙,学生也会包容,一笑了之。

学生十分期待我的习作评讲课。他们以当堂得到老师的褒奖为荣。我的批阅总是十分投入,对出彩的文章、精彩的片段都会做上标记,或摘抄下来,以便在课上朗读或传阅。令学生感到意外的是,我常常会在批改中发现一些“黑马”,对此大加赞扬,让他们热血沸腾,下一次怎么也“小”不下来。一些写作有困难的学生,我也乐于送“温暖”,有时会写较长的评语。我也常常为个别写作能力薄弱的学生单独出题练笔,使他们慢慢跟上“大部队”。

就是这些灵活多样的写作指导,令不同层次的学生都品尝到了成功的喜悦。就在这时,我的幸福感来了!

让语言“粘”住学生。这是于漪老师的名言。课堂教学的语言也应讲究灵动,时而平直,时而高亢,时而舒缓,时而激越。为了调节课堂气氛,我喜欢
“插科打诨”,东台方言甚至唐洋方言俚语、外语、歌曲、戏曲等等,不失时机的穿插,逗得学生前俯后仰,即使上午最后一节课,也让学生忘记了饥饿。

我的课堂是上世纪八九十年代的产物,不尽如人意之处实在太多。课堂语言离标准的普通话还有较大差距,板书未能达到让学生羡慕的程度。知识面还不够广。对学生的学法指导虽重视,但尚未养成良好的习惯。教学设计还缺乏创意,小打小闹的多,没有形成一套独特的自成体系的教法。

我感到,中学语文老师可以不是某门学科领域的专家,但最好是一个杂家,各方面的知识都懂一点。也许由于当时外出学习借鉴的机会较少,总是埋头“拉车”,进步缓慢。说到底,根子源于缺少挑战自我、超越自我的追求,坚持不懈的执著精神。

遗憾多多,何以弥补?或许只能成为一种教训,留给历史去封存吧。              

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